With its wider scale and use of alternative methods of agriculture, more investments may be required while increasing the level of current expenditure. But this is more than payback in the future due to increased yields. There are many ways to grow and grow strawberries. Along with the techniques developed by specialists, every trucker has his own tricks and secrets that help to grow a good harvest. Sometimes it is difficult to understand where these secrets and tricks end and the original technologies begin.
Important! The correct name of strawberries is garden strawberry. Therefore, when you find the terms “strawberry” or “garden strawberries” in articles of experts or truckers, you should know that it is about the same berry.
An open ground or a greenhouse
One of the first questions to be addressed it’s up to every novice entrepreneur who makes up a business plan that it is preferable to grow strawberries outdoors or grow strawberries in a greenhouse.
Growing strawberries in the open field is cheaper, and this applies as a necessary investment s and operating costs. Strawberries grown in the open ground are distinguished by a unique taste, far exceeding the taste of a greenhouse berry. Together with the advantages of this technology of growing strawberries has also disadvantages. The main ones are seasonality and susceptibility to climate variability. Due to unfavorable climatic conditions, crop losses can reach 50 percent or more. To this must be added the need to combat harmful insects and, consequently, the need to use chemical means of their destruction.
Growing strawberries in a greenhouse requires much greater initial investment. Suffice it to say that to equip greenhouses with modern equipment on an area of one hectare, at least an equivalent of $ 100,000 is needed. To this should be added the operating costs, which, above all, include the costs of heating, as well as the costs of artificial lighting and irrigation. In addition, such agrotechnics for growing strawberries require the use of artificial pollination. At the same time, as mentioned above, the taste of greenhouse berries is inferior to the taste of naturally grown berries.
However, this strawberry cultivating technique has a number of serious advantages. These include:
- The ability to grow and sell berries year-round.
- Independence from climatic conditions.
- High profitability and quick return on business.
- Smaller, compared to the open ground, the amount of land needed for production.
The choice between methods is determined by the entrepreneur’s capabilities and market conditions. The climatic zone in which it is supposed to grow berries is of great importance. In more northern regions or regions of Siberia, the greenhouse method prevails, in more southerly – preference is given to cultivation in the open ground.
Large farms that own large land areas often practice both methods. This allows you to receive fresh berries all year round, maintaining competition with the seasonal influx of products. But these methods of growing strawberries, of course, are not limited. Growing and caring for it can vary very much depending on the method used, and this applies both to the greenhouse method and the traditional one.
Growing in bags
Growing strawberries in Dutch technology or, in other words, growing strawberries in bags allows you to get a great harvest from a small area. Therefore, not only dacha parcels are used for it, this technology of growing strawberries is suitable for breeding on a garden bed, balcony, garage or other utility room. Care in this case is not particularly difficult. However, with the use of repair berries or varieties with increased yield, the requirements for care are toughened. And this applies both to the cultivation of strawberries on the balcony, and to growing it on a bed or in a greenhouse.
Garden strawberries should be planted in this manner in bags filled with slightly acidic soil. It is not necessary to buy special bags, ordinary sacks of sugar or flour are suitable. You can also make bags yourself, by cutting a rectangle in a plastic film, then folding it and sealing the two sides. They are installed in rows on shelves or suspended from supports. The gap between them is equal to approximately 20 cm. It is necessary to make sure that there are no more than three sacks per m2, otherwise the plants will feel a lack of light. The height of such a vertical bed can be up to 2.5 m.
Before falling asleep to the bottom of the bags, it is necessary to pour small gravel or expanded clay as drainage. After that, vertically oriented slots are made in bags from all sides. Their length should be approximately 8-10 cm. Slots are staggered at a distance of about 20 cm. Self-pollinating varieties are better suited for planting. In this case, the care of plants is in their airing and regular, preferably, drip irrigation.
In order to grow the strawberries vertically all year round, the method of cold preservation is used. To do this, young shoots are stored at a temperature of 0-2 degrees and a humidity of 90%. Such a regime stops their growth, but does not let them perish. Therefore, they can be used all year round as a planting material.
A peculiar variant of this technique is the cultivation of strawberries in pvc pipes horizontally. In this case, PVC pipes with drilled holes along the entire length are laid horizontally on the shelves. First, they drain the drainage crumb in them, and then the ground. By the middle of each pipe, connect the irrigation pipe, and then plant the seedlings.
Growing in a barrel
Growing strawberries in a barrel is similar in principle to growing it in bags. Only instead of the bag is used a garden barrel, wooden or plastic. For planting seedlings in the barrel, side holes are also cut through, and the bottom in the barrel is covered with a layer of pebbles or a broken stone. Backfilling of a substrate consisting of a mixture of land and peat, taken in equal proportions, is done layer by layer. The thickness of the layer is equal to the distance between two horizontal rows of holes. After filling the layer, seedlings are planted in appropriate holes, after which the next layer is poured in.
Planting small plants in the barrel with infertile soil. However, the barrels can be placed in the greenhouse, then you will have the berry all year round. In addition to high yield, the advantages of growing in a barrel include high protection from pests and diseases. The berry, planted in a barrel, does not need to weed, so caring for it does not take much time. Also, strawberries in a barrel can be grown at home or on the balcony. As for the selection of the variety, the plantant strawberry is best suited for planting in a barrel, which fructifies well even in Siberia, allowing three crops to be harvested instead of one.
Also very good results shows ampelnaya remontant strawberry. This curly garden strawberry is characterized by the fact that it is fructifying is not only the plant itself, but also the mustache. Ampellum repairing strawberries can also bear fruit in conditions of insufficient illumination, therefore this curling berry is often planted on a balcony or small greenhouses. And growing strawberries at home allows you to harvest berries year-round. It should be remembered that an ampeled remontant strawberry needs a transplant every two years, otherwise the bushes degenerate.
The northern climate of Finland, similar to the climate of Siberia, is unfavorable for the cultivation of strawberries, and yet this country occupies one of the leading places in its production. And the berry, grown on the Finnish technology, is famous for its quality. It is not surprising that the introduction of Finnish technology is actively in the regions of Siberia and other Russian regions with a similar climate.
The essence of the Finnish technique is the use of mulching with black film. For this purpose, holes in the staggered order are cut out in the film. Thanks to the film, the beds accumulate heat, which contributes to a significant increase in yield. In addition, the film prevents the ingress of seeds of weeds in them and protects plants from pests. Therefore, care for them is greatly simplified, it, in fact, boils down to timely irrigation. The main labor costs fall on the preparatory period, the sequence of actions in this case is as follows:
- First, the beds are dug, removing the weeds, and loosened. The plots intended for planting must be kept under steam for a year.
- Then the beds are fertilized with compost or humus and left in this form for two weeks.
- Between the rows at a depth of several cm, pipes or watering hoses are instilled.
- Then cover the beds with a film, fix its edges, and plant the seedlings in the holes cut in the film.
Growing strawberries from seeds allows to control the selection of planting material at all stages and avoid degeneration plants. Diseases carried by plants are not transmitted when the seeds are propagated by the seeds. But leaving requires additional efforts. To obtain seeds, berries are selected from the strongest and fruiting bushes. For three months before sowing, the seeds should be stored in a moistened form at a temperature of 2 to 5 degrees. In this case, they must be mixed every two weeks. After three months, the seeds are dried, after which they can be planted.
The germinated seeds are sown in the grooves made in the compacted mixture in 2 cm steps. Then they are covered with glass or polyethylene film and put on a sunny place. To ensure air circulation, the film should be removed daily for some time, which increases with the growth of the seedlings.
Daily watering is carried out with a spray gun, as otherwise the seeds can be washed from the soil. The water temperature should correspond to room temperature. As the seedlings grow, care should be added to fertilizing them every 10 days. Seedlings are best tempered on a balcony at plus temperature.
Kizima's method is named after its developer Galina Kizima. By the method of Kizim, the strawberry is planted in late May - early June. As a planting material the mustache of last year's harvest is used, on each of which one rosette is left. To prepare beds according to the Kizima method, they should be planted with white mustard in August, which can deter the wireworm and nematode. After the first frosts strike, the beds with a flat-topped plow are dug to a depth of several centimeters, poured by Fitosporin and covered with a dark film. This method increases the resistance of plants to various diseases and facilitates the care of them.
Gigantella. Caring for different varieties of strawberries can have so many features that in each case can be considered as a separate technology. To see this, it is enough to recall the technique of growing an ampel or a remontant berry. The same applies to growing conditions. The breeding of the same variety on the balcony and in the greenhouse can be very different. Growing strawberries Giantella variety is no exception. It also has a number of serious features.
Giantella was bred in Holland. It is distinguished by large, up to 100g, fruits and high, up to 50 cm, bushes. In addition, Gigantella has a wonderful taste and aroma, slightly reminiscent of pineapple. It is well kept and easily transported. To plant it, you must choose very well-lit areas. The density of planting is four shrubs per m2. From one bush Gigantella is able to bear fruit for 8 years.
Giantella requires abundant and frequent watering to preserve its qualities. In the early spring, the sites where Gigantella will be planted are fertilized with potash fertilizers. In the second year, ammonium nitrate is used. In the third year, Gigantella is fertilized with a mixture of equal parts of ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride and superphosphate. And half of the fertilizers are brought in the spring, and the other half in the autumn, after the berries are removed. If the requirements of agriculture are met, Gigantella is able to produce a consistently high yield. In addition, in this case, Gigantella demonstrates remarkable resistance to various diseases.
Features of the business plan
From the above, it can be concluded that growing strawberries, subject to the requirements of technology, is characterized by high profitability. And the stability of income is higher in more northern areas, where the number of large farms engaged in growing strawberries is small, as it provides a high demand for berries all year round. Therefore, a beginner entrepreneur can be sure that with a competent approach success is guaranteed to him.
Therefore, the business plan acquires special importance, which sets the sequence of actions of a businessman and presents his project to potential investors. Because of the wide variety of methods of cultivation, each plan, focused on this or that technology, should focus on aspects that are significant for this technology. This rule equally applies, both to the business plan for breeding berries on the balcony, and to the business plan for a large farm.
The difference is that industrial cultivation requires considerable investments. Accordingly, and his business plan should justify their need and convince investors that their funds invested in industrial cultivation will pay off within a reasonable time. The business plan of a small enterprise with original technology focuses on the description of this technology and the rationale for its projected profitability. Otherwise, the business plan of the strawberry growing company is drawn up according to the general scheme, including the description of the project, the action plan, the forecast for two or three years and the financial plan.
When growing strawberries, special attention should be paid to the technology of growing . The most common method in the domestic space involves the use of greenhouses.
Each greenhouse is located on a piece of land. Its area, as well as the dimensions of the greenhouse itself, is determined by the size of the starting capital. First, the cost of the hothouse polycarbonate structure will be about 10 thousand rubles.
Secondly, the purchase of equipment will require:
- - the heating system of plants - 8 thousand rubles;
- - lighting system - 4 thousand rubles.
Total, equipment will cost 12 thousand rubles.
Thirdly, the seedlings themselves. Their cost can vary in a wide range depending on the particular variety. If you choose from the most popular, then on average, their price for 1 square meter planted area is 400 rubles, so the plantation in question will require 4,000 rubles.
Thus, the total cost will be 26 thousand rubles per 10 sq. M plantation. If we increase the exploitable area, the costs will increase proportionally, but not in multiples. This is due to economies of scale (for example, a greenhouse with an area of 20 square meters will cost not 2, but approximately 1.5 times more expensive).
The income from such a plantation has the following form.
Each square meter with the correct care brings about 25 kg of harvest. The cost of 1 kg of strawberries depends on the season and the region and varies from 50 to 250 rubles, so, on average, its price is 150 rubles. Total, 10 square meters of plantation bring revenue of 37.5 thousand rubles. Соответственно, за вычетом расходов на удобрения и электроэнергию, прибыль от их реализации составит около 25 тысяч рублей, что практически окупает плантацию за 1 сезон. Учитывая время созревания клубники — 4 месяца — ежегодно можно извлекать порядка 75 тысяч рублей прибыли с плантации площадью всего лишь 10 кв.м. Соответственно, увеличение площади в 10 раз позволит извлекать ежегодную прибыль в размере 750 тысяч рублей.